The royal charter of December 24, 1768 determined the creation of a Typographic Workshop that could «make itself useful and respectable for the perfection of its characters, and for the abundance and cleanliness of its prints». In the two and a half centuries that have elapsed since then and are remembered to the present, the Royal Print (“National Press” from 1833 onwards) has assumed, in its undeniable connection to the State, to which it is essentially affected, an unavoidable role in promoting typographic arts and the definition of public action in the field of written culture. Combining a workshop character with a cultural and educational vocation, the National Press was a school and created a school in the field of typography, engraving and graphic arts in general, rehearsing and teaching techniques and stamping their evolution, and thus creating generations of craftsmen and even of artists. Official printer-publisher, it was responsible for the privileged dissemination of news and multiple knowledge, from which literary works, classic or not, have more recently been highlighted.
Intending to mark the 250th anniversary of the National Press, this colloquium is intended to express the richness and complexity of its journey, questioning the evolution of the missions and achievements it has carried out throughout its history and, taking its centrality as a pretext, to outline a reflection on the main challenges facing the contemporary publishing world.
In a spectrum necessarily extended to the spaces and realities of the old Empire, several questions emerge. Among others: what motivations underlay the decision of direct intervention of the State, through its Press, in the industrial activity, in the social life and in the cultural production? What role does an official institution of this type play in the context of the different political and ideological regimes – Absolute Monarchy, Liberalism, Republic and Estado Novo – that inevitably determine the conditions and limits of its action?
In the proposed reflection, five main axes are drawn:
- From the institutional history of a state company: the transition from the Royal Print to the National Press, political-ideological uses and manipulations, the indirect and complementary relationship with the colonial context;
- From the book and its materiality: the contribution of the National Press to the history of typography techniques and crafts, the different conceptions of the materiality of the book (from paper to electronic publishing), the transnational circulation of knowledge and techniques;
- From craft to art: engraving, its creative/artistic character and its use(s) in the book;
- Education and professional training: the role of the State and the National Press in the development of training in national graphic arts;
- From the book, knowledge and reading: editorial policies, educational and scientific action, reception and ways of reading.
Free entry and subject to registration
9:30 am – Opening
10:00-10:45 – Inaugural Conference
“The National Press in the context of the 18th century pedagogical reform”
Artur Anselmo | Professor at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Former President of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon
10:45 am to 11:00 am – coffee
11:00-13:00 – Institutional history
Nuno Monteiro | ICS - Moderator
“Printers at the origins of royal printing: Miguel Manescal da Costa and Niccolò Pagliarini”
João Luís Lisbon | NEW FCSH
“Between powers and knowledge: the graphic production of the Royal Print (1768-1800)”
Fernanda Guedes de Campos | CHAM – NOVA FCSH
Margarida Ortigão Ramos Paes Leme | INCM / IEM - NOVA FCSH
“The Royal Impression in the Crisis of the Ancien Régime: Crown, authors and political and social tensions in Portugal and Brazil”
Luiz Carlos Villalta | Federal University of Minas Gerais
“Industry, Art and Letters. 250 years of the National Press”
Maria Inês Queiroz, IHC – NOVA FCSH / INCM
1:00 pm to 2:30 pm – Lunch
14:30-16:00 – From craft to art I
Raquel Henriques da Silva | NEW FCSH – Moderator
“Joaquim Carneiro da Silva. From the Royal Impression Class to the plan of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts”
Miguel Figueira de Faria | UAL
“The religious books edited by the Royal Print and their engravings: production, circulation and influences in Portuguese America”
Camila Guimaraes Santiago | Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia
“From Europe to Lisbon: a reflection on the activity of the engraver Francesco Bartolozzi at the service of the Royal Print”
Alexandra Gomes Markl | MNAA
16:00-16:15 – coffee
16:15-17:15 – From craft to art II
José Luis Cardoso | ICS - Moderation
“António Rodrigues Galhardo’s workshop at the origins of the National Press”
Maria Teresa Payan Martins, CHAM | NEW FCSH
“The Flora Fluminense by Frei Veloso and the botanical publications of the Casa Literária do Arco do Cego: considerations on the printed image”
Regiane Caire da Silva, Federal University of Maranhão | UFMA
17:15 - 18:00 – Conference debate
Aline Hall de Beuvink | UAL - Moderator
“The public service edition in the National Press. What future for the National Press?”
Duarte Azinheira | INCM
18:00 – 19:00 – Presentation of Editions
“Frei Veloso and the typography of Arco do Cego”
Org. Ermelinda Moutinho Pataca and Fernando José Luna | USP Edition (Edusp)
“Industry, Art and Letters. 250 Years of the National Press”
Maria Inês Queiroz, Inês José and Diogo Ferreira, National Press Edition
A Port of Honor is served.
9:30 am to 11:00 am – Book I Policies
Diogo Ramada Short | NEW FCSH – Moderation
“Editions of the National Press in the study of Portuguese collections and museums of the 19th century. XVIII”
João Brigola | CIDEHUS/University of Évora
“The Casa do Correio Bookstore: Prints from Arco do Cego in the captaincy of Maranhão”
Marcelo Cheche Galves, State University of Maranhão
“Politics of Language and Royal Impression: grammars, spellings and dictionaries (1768-1800)”
Ana Cristina Araújo, University of Coimbra
11:00 am - 11:30 am – coffee
First steps of the Press in Brazil: From António Isidoro da Fonseca to Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro and Correio Braziliense
Nicoli Braga Macêdo and Sabrinne Cordeiro | UAL
11:30-13:00 – Book II Policies
Duarte Freitas, UAL – Moderation
“Printing and publishing in the colonies: the National Press in Luanda and Macau”
Cátia Miriam Costa | CEI-IUL
“Editing, State and Regime: Phenomenologies in the Portuguese Dictatorship”
Nuno Medeiros | IHC – NOVA FCSH / ESTeSL-IPL
1:00 pm to 2:30 pm – Lunch
14:30-16:30 – The book and its materiality
Paula Lopes | UAL - Moderation
“Ph series. the edition of photography books in the public publishing house”
Claudio Garrudo | INCM
“Today's Centuries, Tomorrow's Books”
Rúben Dias | Higher School of Art and Design of Matosinhos
“Gardens of Memory”
Jorge Silva | communication designer
“The Book between materiality and virtuality”
Warrior Dahlia | CIDEHUS – University of Évora
4:30 pm - 5:00 pm – coffee
Sofia Carrola | UAL
Illustrating knowledge: what does the image in the book reveal?
17:00-17:45 – Closing conference
“Les espaces du livre en France from 1640 to the Revolution”
Frédéric Barbier, CNRS / École Pratique des Hautes Études
17:45-18:00 – Closing session
Ana Cristina Araújo | Coimbra University
Dauphin Leo | Coimbra University
Diogo Ramada Short | IPRI, NOVA FCSH
Fernanda Campos | CHAM, NOVA FCSH
João Luís Lisbon | NEW FCSH
José Luis Cardoso | Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon
Luis Carlos Villalta | Federal University of Minas Gerais
Margarida Paes Leme | NOVA FCSH / National Press – Mint
Miguel Figueira de Faria | Autonomous University of Lisbon
Nuno Monteiro | Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon
Paulo Jorge Fernandes | NOVA FCSH – New University of Lisbon
Frédéric Vidal | Autonomous University of Lisbon (Coordinator)
Aline Hall de Beuvink | Autonomous University of Lisbon
Duarte Azinheira | National Press – Mint
Duarte Manuel Freitas | Autonomous University of Lisbon
Madalena Romão Mira | Autonomous University of Lisbon
Maria Luisa Jacquinet | Autonomous University of Lisbon
Margarida Paes Leme | National Press – Mint
Miguel Figueira de Faria | Autonomous University of Lisbon
João Francisco Fialho | Autonomous University of Lisbon
Raquel Medina Heads | Autonomous University of Lisbon
From Europe to Lisbon: a reflection on the activity of the engraver Francesco Bartolozzi at the service of the Royal Print
The invitation by the Portuguese authorities to the highly prestigious engraver Francesco Bartolozzi (1725-1815) to work and direct the engraving class at the Royal Print, from 1802 onwards, was a relevant event in the shy national art scene at the time. Throughout a remarkable international career, first in his native Florence and later in England, he had established himself as the most outstanding and innovative engraver of his generation. Creator of new techniques that raised engraving to a new artistic level, his arrival in Lisbon with the aim of preparing a new generation of engravers destined for the then lacking service of the Régia Tipográfica Oficina, was full of expectations that would end up not fully materialize.
National Museum of Ancient Art
Language Policy and Royal Printing: grammars, spellings and dictionaries (1768-1800)
In this communication we evaluate the role of Régia Oficina Tipográfica in the process of application and diffusion of the orthographic standard, as well as the opening of lexical fields in Portuguese culture in the Enlightenment period. Special emphasis is given to the printing of language learning vehicles and to the publishing movement of grammars and dictionaries of foreign languages that distinctly marks the second half of the 18th century.
From 1768, the Royal Typography, created in that year, receives the mission of ensuring the publication of dictionaries and grammars of foreign languages for use by the classes of the Colégio dos Nobres. Extending the survey to other printing houses, it appears that, in the period between the thirties and the end of the eighties of the 18th century, the production of such instruments of access to European vernaculars, especially French, increased considerably.
The religious books published by the Royal Print and their engravings: production, circulation and influences in Portuguese America
The religious books published by the Royal Print between the 1770s and 1820s are approached, giving special emphasis to the Missals and the engravings that composed them. In this sense, the techniques and expenses with the opening of the matrices and the printing process will be discussed, thus shedding some light on the engraving school of the Régia Typographic Workshop headed by Joaquim Carneiro da Silva and, later, by Francesco Bartolozzi. It is intended to deal with the influence exerted by these engravings on the painters who worked in Portuguese America, especially in the captaincy of Minas Gerais, since they were recurrently taken by them as models for their works. Between the last three decades of the 18th century and the first two of the 19th, there were several painters in charge of the pictorial ornamentation of religious buildings in the captaincy of Minas Gerais who imitated Portuguese engravings, translating them to the taste in vogue among their contemporaries. The compositions and iconographic patterns carved in the heart of the Royal Print crossed the ocean and, through the work of painters in Minas, were colored, becoming paintings on ceilings and walls of chapels and churches. Thus, the wide influence exerted by this school of Portuguese engraving on the artistic environment of the New World is remarkable.
Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia
Print and publish in the colonies: the National Press in Luanda and Macau
The arrival of the National Press in colonial contexts transformed the way not only of printing, but also of publishing in these territories. In many cases, for the first time, print means arrived that would allow the regular publication of information concerning the colonial space. Created for the publication of local government bulletins, they quickly took on other tasks, allowing the printing of other documents in addition to official periodicals. In fact, the arrival of the National Press in the colonies allowed printed documents to be produced and distributed locally, which from the outset guaranteed new opportunities for reception, but also for the production and distribution of messages to and from the colonial territory. This study aims to analyze the impact of the arrival of the National Press in Luanda and Macau, opting for a comparative analysis. Our objective is to find out if the consequences of the establishment of this institution were identical in both cases. It is also worth noting that in the different territories colonized by Portugal, the evolution and availability of typographic means was uneven. In the cases under study, it should be noted that the first book was printed in the 16th century, while Luanda (Angola) had to wait until the 19th century to have its first book printed locally.
Ph series the edition of photography books in the public publishing house. New ways of public edition and the specific case of the Ph series
The Ph Series. is a collection of monographs dedicated to contemporary Portuguese photography. These editions aim to make the work of the authors known, presenting the expanded and multiple territories of Photography and are enriched with texts by specialists. The National Press (INCM), by publishing a series of books on contemporary Portuguese photography, assumes its role as a public publisher and ensures «The edition of essential works of Portuguese culture», a feature it has developed over 250 years and which is defined by its statutes. This presentation covers the entire editorial process of the project and reveals the new paths of public publishing, specifically the specific case of the Ph Series, as well as the contextualization of other photography collections at an international level.
The Book between materiality and virtuality
The observation of digital libraries of incunabula and ancient book collections allowed us to collect information and evaluate the particularities inherent to them and the way in which they affect their availability online. In order to analyze the characteristics of the old book, a survey was carried out of the works made available online by the National Digital Library Portugal, dated between 1450 and 1800, which includes the collection made available online by the Faculty of Arts of the University of Lisbon within the scope of the Heritage project. , in a total of 7,500 titles. In order to limit the study, the temporal arc considered was from 1450 to 1550, corresponding to the first 100 years of printing with movable characters. From this analysis, it is possible to conclude that the condition that most influences the process of digitizing the old book stems from its formal characteristics, the heritage value attributed to it and its state of conservation, imposing special care in its handling; on the other hand, investigation requirements have specific requirements for searching and accessing content, transcribing and marking the text, creating connection points.
Between powers and knowledge: the graphic production of the Royal Print (1768-1800)
The foundation of the Régia Oficina Tipográfica, in the last days of 1768, is part, as we know, of a broader strategy that configures the Josephine das Luzes program, following, in fact, chronologically the creation of the Royal Censorship Table with which it maintained a close connection. . The founding decree of December 24 clearly emphasizes the direct dependence of the king, although, in the articles, it is obvious that the new typographic workshop was free to decide on its editorial plan, in an explicit policy of fair prices without regard to “ big profit interests” before looking for a high graphic quality in their products. The editorial criteria of a typographic workshop that was “royal” but competed with others are revealed in the 1554 books and pamphlets that, between 1768 and 1800, appeared in first editions or reprints. From the large-scale work, with a profusion of engravings, for which the Royal Print was particularly qualified, through “regime works” and of great religious, cultural and scientific dissemination, to the librettos, poetry, catalogs and gazettes, the activity typography is varied and testimonial of the tastes and needs of prospective readers. In this communication we will try to present 1) the bibliometric data that result from a detailed analysis of the Register Books existing in the Arquivo da Imprensa Nacional; 2) the editorial options that resulted from private, collective and royal commissions 3) the different thematic typologies and, ultimately, the perception of the powers and knowledge that intertwined in the reigns of D. José I and D. Maria I.
CHAM – NOVA FCSH
INCM / IEM - NOVA FCSH
Editions of the National Press in the study of Portuguese collections and museums of the 19th century. XVIII
Some fundamental works are identified for the characterization of Portuguese museological and heritage initiatives of the 19th century. XVIII, edited by the National Press throughout the following century. Each edition will be temporally contextualized and its respective cultural and historiographical importance for the study of 18th century naturalist, scientific and archaeological collections will be revealed.
CIDEHUS/University of Évora
Printers at the origins of royal printing: Miguel Manescal da Costa and Niccolò Pagliarini
The creation of the royal printing, following well-defined objectives of guaranteeing the quality of typographic works in Portugal, is based on the experience and knowledge of two printers who had worked for many years in 1768, Miguel Manescal da Costa (with his workshop) and Niccolò Pagliarini. Both have a long history of collaboration with the Portuguese Crown. It is intended here to analyze some aspects of the work of these two very diverse printers, from the perspective of their convergence and the characteristics of the institution in whose creation they participated.
Gardens of Memory
Contrary to the vortex of the present time and the ungrateful memory of men, the books in the D collection are dedicated to great characters in the history of Portuguese design, authors from various disciplines, from communication to objects, from fashion to graphics, from advertising to illustration, in affordable and essentially visual monographs. Collection D, from Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, a publishing house dedicated to the public service, has 14 volumes published since 2011, on the artists Victor Palla, R2, Pedro Falcão, Paulo-Guilherme, Marco Sousa Santos, Fernando Brízio, Roberto Nobre , Fred Kradolfer, Carlos Guerreiro, Luís Miguel Castro, João da Câmara Leme and Luís Filipe de Abreu. In 2018, volume 13 coincided with a graphic remodeling, of which volumes on Dorindo de Carvalho and Eduardo Aires have already been published. The D Collection books are a first encounter with the excellence of Portuguese designers, relating their work to the present and future of a rich but poorly studied history of national design. They are storybooks with a future.
The Royal Impression in the Crisis of the Ancien Régime: Crown, authors and political and social tensions in Portugal and Brazil
The Royal Print, created in Lisbon by the Charter of December 24, 1768, was established on May 13, 1808, also in Rio de Janeiro, shortly after the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, holding the printing monopoly in the new capital of the Portuguese Empire until 1821. In the turbulent circumstances of the transition from the 18th to the 19th century, the Royal Print, on both sides of the Atlantic, responded to the interests of the Crown, either in the sense of preserving the so-called Ancien Régime, or in order to continue the reforms illustrated works started in 1750. At the same time, it expressed some political and social concerns and conflicts then existing. In 1822, under the name of "National Press", in Lisbon, at the behest of the Constituent Cortes, he edited the book Letters and more pieces addressed to His Majesty D. João VI by the Royal Prince D. Pedro de Alcântara: and together with the official letters and documents, which the General Commander of the expeditionary troop existing in the Province of Rio de Janeiro had sent to the Government.
This communication aims to discuss this path, prioritizing the Royal Print of Rio de Janeiro and highlighting Cartas e mais pieces…, the aforementioned publication.
Federal University of Minas Gerais
The Casa do Correio Bookstore: Prints from Arco do Cego in the captaincy of Maranhão
At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, thousands of forms were sent to Portuguese America, as can be seen in the records of the Royal Censorship Bureau, preserved by the National Archives of Torre do Tombo. In other ways, official or not, the captaincies received an incalculable diversity of titles. This communication is limited to analyzing the records of the Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino, referring to the sending of works produced within the scope of the Casa Literária do Arco do Cego to the captaincy of Maranhão. Furthermore, it links the information contained in these records to a broader policy of disseminating scientific knowledge, coordinated by the Secretary of State for the Navy and Overseas Domains D. Rodrigo de Sousa Coutinho, understood here from the captaincy of Maranhão and aspects such as: choice in 1798 of D. Diogo de Sousa, a graduate of the University of Coimbra, to govern the captaincy; the creation in 1799 of the Casa do Correio bookstore, in the capital São Luís, for the sale of printed matter from Arco do Cego; and the correspondence exchanged between the governor and Sousa Coutinho, with themes related to scientific literature.
State University of Maranhao
Industry, Art and Letters. 250 years of the National Press
Imprensa Nacional completed two and a half centuries of editorial activity on December 24, 2018 and is currently part of Imprensa Nacional – Casa da Moeda, as a result of the merger with Casa da Moeda on July 4, 1972, continuing to provide its original mission. Its history intersects with the history of the Country, varying according to the main political and economic transformations and sociocultural changes that, as a whole, were reflected in its editorial production. This study represents a first global approach to the history of the National Press, framing and contextualizing it in the general history of graphic arts in Portugal. It is proposed that it constitutes a stimulus for future works and reflections around publishing, the book and the graphic industry, from a history that allows us to understand the role of the State, the importance of professional training, the complementary role of the National Press in the Portuguese editorial universe and the public mission that has been structured along its path.
António Rodrigues Galhardo's workshop at the origins of the National Press
When in 1768 the question of sigilism (1745) was reborn, the political-religious framework was completely altered. D. Miguel da Anunciação continued, at that time, to direct the diocese of Coimbra and was, since 1759, the only head of the Jacobeans, protagonist of the 1745 dispute, still alive. Faithful to Jacobean reformist principles, the bishop of Coimbra viewed with apprehension the invasion of regalist doctrines and even before being arrested, in 1768, he expressed his disagreement with the theologians and jurists of Sebastião José. The pretext for the reopening of the conflict arose in 1768, when the bishop-count of Coimbra, alarmed by the proportions that regalism and materialism reached in Portugal, had a handwritten pastoral read in the churches of his diocese, forbidding his diocesans, under penalty of of excommunication, the reading of books that had been published in recent times, “against revealed religion and the purity of customs”. D. Miguel da Anunciação was arrested, it was made known that he had committed the crime of lèse-majesté and an examination of the Pastoral was entrusted to the Royal Censorship Board. The conviction was handed down and immediately printed. This species has a particularity worthy of note and which needs to be explained: although its face appears to have been stamped in the Régia Tipográfica Oficina, the typographic paternity of the Sentence of the Real Mesa Censória against the manuscript pastoral … that the bishop of Coimbra D. Miguel da Annunciation spread clandestinely … is proven by António Rodrigues Galhardo.
CHAM / FCSH-NOVA
Joaquim Carneiro da Silva. From the Royal Impression Class to the plan of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts
Joaquim Carneiro da Silva (1732-1818) was one of the most influential artists of the late Ancien Régime. Starting his career in the protection circle of the Marquis of Pombal, as founder of the engraving school created in the Royal Print (1769), he assumed himself as the interpreter of the regime's ideology, namely in the anti-Jesuit campaign, filling the gap admittedly existing at the time in Portugal the use of the printed image as a vehicle of propaganda. Scholarship holder in Rome, where he was a disciple of Ludovico Stern, he transferred to Lisbon the teaching methods learned there, initially transposed to the Engraving Class of the Royal Print and, above all, in the organization of the first Public Drawing Class established in 1781, already at the time of D. Maria I. Idealized an integrated system of teaching the fine arts whose closing stone would be a Royal Academy of Fine Arts for which she came to elaborate the project. Its action had a decisive impact on the launch of a public education in Fine Arts in Portugal and, equally, on the consolidation of the status of an elite segment of Lisbon artists that contributed to the disaggregation of the corporate system of image producers and their respective companies. representation structures, namely the Brotherhood of Saint Luke. A moderate encyclopedist, an actor at a time when artists were trying to intervene in the sphere of political and social ideas, his influence declined in the context of the premature death of the Prince of Brazil in 1788. The work Luz da Liberal would initially be dedicated to Prince D. José Arte da Cavalaria… which will constitute its graphic legacy in the editions portfolio of Imprensa Régia and simultaneously represents the collapse and closure of the first engraving class created in Portugal.
First steps of the Press in Brazil: from António Isidoro da Fonseca to Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro and Correio Braziliense (Poster)
This article aims to address the actions prior to the arrival of the Portuguese royal family in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro/1808) and seeks to affirm an image and action that already exists, even if unofficially, of a national press almost half a century before, mid-eighteenth. We established this date as the starting point, so the attention will focus on the figure of the Portuguese typographer António Isidoro da Fonseca, who in the aforementioned year of 1746 established a typographic workshop in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The first publication dates from 1747, there are three known, and it was “The Relation of the Entry by the Most Reverend Bishop D. Fr. António do Desterro Malheyro”. Point out the transition period that occurs after the arrival of the royal family and the measures that moved the official formation of the press in Brazilian territory. Thus, we will present the first two publications (1808), each with its own peculiarity, Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro and Correio Braziliense, with only three months of difference between them in the first publication, and although the second was printed in London, we consider both here as pioneers in the diffusion of communication in Brazil.
Edition, State and regime: phenomenologies in the Portuguese dictatorship
In this communication, we seek to understand the ambiguous, if not dual, way in which the Estado Novo dealt with the book as an object of political action. Attempts to frame the book as a promotion target in the sense of effective support and the adoption of corrective measures for market dysfunctions, typical of a contemporary and open matrix of developed political and social systems, never really existed during the dictatorship period. In fact, from the beginning the authoritarian regime hesitated between formulas – isolated – to support editing and reading, which it could not or did not want to consolidate, and options aimed at managing to enlist book agents (especially editors and authors) to the never materialized literature. official of the Estado Novo. At the end of the 1950s, this ambiguity ceased, giving way to the practically unique way of repressing the book, with power basing its actions on the absence of proposals to promote the publishing and bookseller market such as those seen in other national contexts, including autocratic ones.
IHC – NOVA FCSH / ESTeSL-IPL
Frei Veloso's Flora Fluminense and the botanical publications of the Casa Literária do Arco do Cego: considerations about the printed image
This study analyzes the printed botanical image without going into the morphological characteristics of the plants for the classification of the species, but delimited by a graphic look aimed at the investigation of the processual production of the print. The choice of the botanical theme in illustrated editions is due to its visual appeal, usually more refined, in the characterization of leaves, flowers and fruits. In this sense, we are interested in investigating how the transposition of the manuscript normally carried out in drawing/painting to graphic expression through engraving happens, illuminated in more complex publications. Therefore, the printed image is treated as a document imbued with information that contributes to the history of art and techné, highlighting the knowledge and practices of printers and artists of the time. Thus, as the research object of this work, the handwritten work Flora Fluminense (1790) and its printed version completed in 1827 by the author Friar José Mariano da Conceição Veloso (1742-1811) were chosen, highlighting him not only as religious and naturalist, but as editor/director of the Casa Literária do Arco do Cego. The methodology used was based on the analysis of Flora Fluminense, observing the technical procedures applied for the printed version, as well as the comparison between engravings from other botanical editions produced under the command of Frei Veloso at the Casa Literária do Arco do Cego. The result points to the singularity of the aspect of the printed edition of Flora Fluminense, raising the hypothesis of the possible continuity of the information of the plant, which seems unfinished, through painting over the engraving - lighting, a refined procedure found in botanical editions prior to the 19th century. and not as “poorly defined and badly recorded” as was, among others, the criticism of the edition.
Federal University of Maranhão – UFMA
The centuries of today, the books of tomorrow
The National Press, over 250 years, has developed the main techniques associated with the production of the book, from the execution of movable characters, through various printing techniques, to the finishing of volumes, thus becoming an unavoidable landmark for the study. of the book in our country. The movable characters work like the image of words and reflect, in an extremely refined way, the ideals of an era in each context. The study of these letters contributes to understanding the period of their use and sheds light on the current development of typefaces, either with a faithful historical interpretation, or for a free interpretation, supported by informed decisions that allow building an evolution between the past and the actuality. In the same way, the book also allows the interpretation of the past to build the future. IN in recent years has revealed a priority to think of the book as an object of enjoyment. The Italica collection, recently edited, appears as a contemporary reflection, with roots in the history of the book. In a technically updated way and simultaneously reflecting an image of contemporaneity, it seeks to contribute, from a design point of view, to an evolution of the book reflecting innovation sustained by history.
Higher School of Art and Design of Matosinhos
Illustrating knowledge: what does the image in the book reveal? (Poster)
To understand the history of the National Press is to cross the bulwark of an era characterized by scientific renewal and the transformation of political, economic, social and religious concepts. Driven by the Royal Academy of Portuguese History, founded by D. João V, and by the Royal Print, created in the time of D. José I, it had a peculiar path constituting an institution that followed the demands of its time. In the importation of typographic progress and engraving techniques, the advent of a new information culture was promoted that would evolve to the multiple graphic paths supported by typography and image, where art complements the craft. Artists, pedagogues, scientists and politicians would surrender to the usefulness of incorporating images into texts, actively sharing the interest long developed by the Church in exploring the communicative potentialities of the image. The presence of engravings in books would become widespread throughout the 18th century. In this new framework, its function is no longer that of simple ornamentation or the result of a collective work that ends with printing. Effectively, engraving conquered a space in the book and in the arts, being recognized for a concrete meaning, aggregating diverse functions and utilities (fundamentally gnosiological), which it proposes to deal with.
Department of History, Arts and Humanities